History Medora Brick Plant

Medora, Indiana
Indiana 425 southwest of Medora in Jackson County

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A Sketch In Progress - a little bit of history of the Medora Brick Plant


July 30, 2006..beginning to develop pages that provide a timeline for Medora Brick Plant..will be placing information contain elsewhere on this site into the timeline.  If you would like to share something for this timeline please Email.



The Medora Shale Brick Company was founded in August 2, 1904 and began producing brick in 1906 from a site constructed southwest of the town of Medora adjacent to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad line.  The hills surrounding the site contained a ready supply of clay for brick production.


Over the company built a complex of 12 domed brick kilns each with its own attached square chimney.  Long, covered storage sheds were constructed around the periphery of the complex.  A small office and a brick drying building were also built.   There were several ponds on the property – the plant used 10,000 gallons of water a day drawn from the ponds.


Initially Medora produced mostly brick for paving streets but had financial troubles early on.  In 1924 the Medora plant was purchased at bankruptcy auction by the Jackson Brick & Hollow Ware Company, who also operated in northeast Brownstown - making predominately hollow drainage tile.    Under the new owners the Medora plant move from street pavers to producing primarily wall brick for facing commercial buildings including college campus buildings at Purdue Univ., Univ. of Kentucky, and Univ. of Louisville and beyond.


The new owners were Joseph Robertson who had the financial strength in partnership with John W. Heller, a farm owner from Brownstown.  Joe Robertson was President of both the Jackson Brick & Hollow Ware Co. and the Medora Brick Co. until his passing in April 1944.   And shortly, after coming out of the army in WWII,  John Heller's son, James P. Heller, became President of the companies.


During the 1970's with PVC (plastic) pipe taking over the drain tile market the Jackson Brick & Hollow Ware Co. closed and Medora took over their assets.


But by 1990 with an aging Board of Directors that no longer had enough  interest keeping the antiquated Medora plant going, the Medora Brick Company stopped production and officially closed on January 31, 1992.


Unfortunately some of the buildings on the site were taken down to reduce the property's exposure to property taxes.  And the Environmental Protection Agency is said to have overseen the needed minor clean-up of the plant property.

photo from Historic Landmarks Foundation of IndianaToday, the site is an abandon quite little industrial Stonehenge. 

Times seems to have stopped but time doesn't stop, of course, so trees grow through the foundations and wall of the 10 remaining kilns and other structures, mortar leeches out, and rust attacks the iron straps around the kilns. 

Preservation, restoration or finding a new use for such rare and unusual structures presents a tough challenge.

Medora Brick Plant has been placed on the Historic Landmarks Foundation of Indiana's 10 Most Endangered sites.


Through the Years (in progress)



According to Jackson County courthouse records, on July 8, 1904, there was a meeting to form Medora Shale Brick Company.  On July 15, 1904 the company's articles of association were filed and officially recorded August 2, 1904.1

see copy of actual incorporation record

At the founding the five-member Board of Directors have been said to have been George W. Zollman, Cornelius V. Trautman, Josiah L. Hunsucker, John H. Sutton, and William T. Branaman and amongst themselves elected a President, Vice President, Secretary and Treasurer. (positions not known at this time).


The major stockholders were D.M. Hughes from Medora, Cornelius V. Trautman, form Medora and Wm. T. Branaman1

Stockholders and the distribution of the 300 shares of stock were:

From Medora
D.M. Hughes age ~59, occupation farmer/ investor, 55 shares
Cornelius V. Trautman age ~27, occupation: miller, 25 shares
J.M. Henderlider, (there were in Jackson Co. several J.M.
Henderliders, which one isn't clear) 10
Thos. F. Zollman, 10
M.V. Wilson, 10
Geo. W. Zollman, 10
J.L. Hunsucker, 15
Geo. W. Owen, 10
John H. Sutton, 10
J.C. Henderlider, 10
J.M. Henderlider Jr, 5
L. Ernst, 10
Alice Zollman, 10
Harry L. Ernst, 5
Florence Z. Hamilton, 10
C.C. McMillan, 10
Otto A. Ernst, 10


From Leesville 
George B. Jackson, 5

Cynthia Holland, 10

William R. Holland, 5


From Seymour  Wm. T. Branaman, 20.


From Vallonia 
William B. Dryden, 10

M.B. Singer, 10

John E. Hunsucker, 5

E.C. Richards, 5


From Washington County  Thomas C. Julian, 5.

Misc Rec E (1902-1909), pg 106-107 - from documents held by Jackson County Recorder in Brownstown, Indiana.

In 1908 the company's articles were amended.  Of particular interest in this courthouse filing was the fact that some of the names of the larger originating stockholders do not appear.  (Not sure why.)

The Board of Directors (as of Aug. 12, 1908) was N.V. Trautman, J.L. Hunsucker, C.C. McMillan, H.M. Smith and D.M. Hughes.2

Stockholders and the shares of stock held were listed as:

From Medora

J.L Hunsucker, 10
N.V. Trautman, 10
Z.C. Hinderlider, 10
George W. Owen, 10
M. Twiney, 10
H.W. Smith, 10
David M. Huges, 10
C.C. McMillan, 10
J. Paul McMillan, 10
R.L. Rucker, 10
Phebe Hughes, 10
Alice Zollman, 10
John M Hinderlider, 10
L.C. Huffington, 10

From Seymour

Thomas Honan, 10

<Will insert image of the 1908 articles document filed at the Jackson Co. Courthouse.>

Misc Rec E (1902-1909), pg 528 - from documents held by Jackson

     County Recorder in Brownstown, Indiana.

1910 Federal Census     Census taken here in April and May of 1910
from the 1910 Federal Census for Carr Township, in Jackson County, Indiana the following people were working at the brick plant:

Parker, Samuel 30

“Superintendent of Brick Plant” then age 30
born ~1879 married for seven years with child, Florence age 4 . He was born in Ohio as was wife Eliza.  

Lonsburry, Henry 27

or Ionsburry

Jackson, Curtis 52

perhaps - listed as a  'brick maker'

McMillan, Clyde 37

bookkeeper for the plant

McMillan,   Roland 26

nephew of Clyde?

Peck, Lew 30

married no children

Shelton, John 22

single, boarder   laborer at Brick Plant 

Sons, Nick 26

single living with Henry Lonsburry, his brother in law

Sutherland, Alva 27

engineer at Brick Plant - keeping things running

Trueblood, Virgil 27

married, child

Williams, Charley 24

married children laborer   

Woods, Garry W. 21


Woods, David 18


<Will be checking other adjoining townships to see who else may have listed their job as being at the brick plant.>

Elmer E. Rudder, of the Salem, Indiana Rudders had farmed then worked for the railroad as a section foreman around Medora & Sparksville.   In October 1914, at age 50, his occupation was listed as 'boss at brick plant' on the marriage certificate of his daughter Maria.  At some point he was believed to be have been a railroad ‘trainmaster’; but seems to have been considered to have been a railroader during most of his life.

The Medora / Jackson County Directory shows the following persons working at the brick plant.  No Samuel Parker or Elmer Rudder listed.

Chapman, Charles

burner at brick plant; wife Delia A.

Hook, Fred N.

brick burner; wife Ella

Weddle, William

fireman at brick plant; wife Laura


numerous other men were listed in the city directory simply as being general laborers and may have worked at the brick plant regularly or on occasion.

1920 Federal Census
Checking the 1920 Federal Census for Carr Township, in Jackson County, Indiana the quality of the census record images as viewed on Ancestry.com are too faded to make out the occupations of those listed.  Perhaps another source for the census will provide a readable copy.

1924 Change of Ownership
The Medora plant had financial troubles early on and went into bankruptcy in the early 1920's.  In 1924 was purchased at auction for $30,000 by two Brownstown residents - Joseph Robertson of  age 44 who would serve as President and by John W. Heller age 43.  The Robertson family resided at 296 Spring St. and  included wife Bessie B. and daughter Carolyn (then age 1).  The Heller Family lived on their farm included: John W. Heller a farmer, wife Margaret and their son James P. (then age 12).  James P. would later (~1946) become President of the Medora Brick Co. through its closing. 

1930 Federal Census  Census taken here in April of 1930
from the 1910 Federal Census for Carr Township, in Jackson County, Indiana the following people indicated they worked at the brick plant:

Clark, Howard 58

 residing with wife at 162 Main St.

Sheppard, George A  foreman

Brown, Harry 41


Brown, Frank 24


Davis, Ansell 26


Dixon, Alva 25


Dixon, Harrod 23


Durham, Perry 20


Durham, Gilbert 57


Gallion, St Clair 73


Gray, Ralph 28


Greathouse, Clifford 28


Henderson, Russell 24


Hubbard, Roy 27


Hughes, Nineva 50


Hunsucker, Robert 50


Hunsucker, Henry S. 16


Lane, Everett 25


Loch(k)man(n), Erastus 54


Lonsburry,  John 29


McMillan, Rolland 46


Poor, Ralph 32


Pray, John 25


Shelton,  Frank 39


Shelton,  John 41


Sheppard, John W.


Smith, Frank 51


Smith, Taft 22


Sons, Frank 47


Tomsberry, Henry 49


Watts, Clarence 34


Watts, James 28


Weaver, Carroll R. 21


Weddel, Henry 42


Wineiseg--, Millard  47


Williams, William S 42


Williams, Willie 18


Woods, Daniel 38


Will check and add from the the 1940 census by the end of June 2015.

Insights by Medora resident and long-time Plant Manager - Bernard A. Gray 3

Bernard Gray’s father, Ralph, went to work at the plant in 1925 after it came under the ownership of Mr.'s Heller and Robinson.  Bernard's brother, Erridine was the brick plant salesman 1946-1969.

Bernard Gray worked at the plant first at the age of 16 in 1946. After his Junior and Senior year he went two years into military service for the Korean War and returned to work in the plant.

He became the Superintendent the first of Feb. 1968 and served in that position until the plant closed in January 31, 1992 – 24 years to the day as boss!  Covering a 46 year span!! 

Bernard Gray knows the entire brick making process and much of the plants' history.   He said that plant originally made mostly ‘paving block’ commonly called street paving brick.  But that slowed in the early 1920's and the Company  went into bankrupcy – later they produced mostly wall brick for facing buildings.  So a ‘Medora stamped brick’ is circa 1924 or before.* 

* - not sure when or if the plant ceased operation in connection with bankrupcy but things went away from paving block after Jackson Brick & Hollow Ware purchased the plant in 1924.    

Regarding street brick - about an inch from each end of the brick there was a raised (1/8 inch) dimple that was purposefully placed there to keep shod horses from slipping on the brick.  Some Medora paving block had 4 dimples (date produced?).

In 1900 there were approximately 52 brick companies in Indiana. 

The Medora Brick Plant kilns are about 30 feet in diameter.  The walls -   8 feet high and 24 inches  thick.  The domes ceiling/roofs were self supporting sitting on the walls.  When loaded and processed each kiln (1950’s-1992) was to yield 70,000 saleable brick from the 72,000 to 73,000 brick that it contained per firing. A three to five percent loss.   It took about 1 lb. of coal (that generated the heat) to produce one brick.

Bricks were placed in the kiln 30 high, then brick would be laid up to close the doors and then mudded over.  Then heat was put to the kiln to fire the brick. 

When were the brick ready?  There was a 6 to 8 inch opening at the top of the dome and that was covered with a steel plate.  The distance down to the top of the brick pile was measured and after days of raising the temperature kiln the brick were ready when there was a "12 ½ inch settle" - which was a measurement down from the opening at the top of the kiln  … the net measurement comprised of expansion (upward) of the dome itself as well as the settling of the brick stack below.

It has been said that the plant would make up to 54,000 bricks per day which was 324,000 brick per week - didn't get confirmation of those numbers from Mr. Gray.    It took 21 days from quarrying material on through till the brick was on the job site as a product.

At some point (year/s ?) it took 45 men to operate the plant.  And with Medora having a small population, that was a large percentage.  When the company quarried material by team horses, sledge, and dynamite it took about 8 more employees than when shale was quarried by large shovel equipment and trucks.  After 1938-1940 material was trucked in from a sight about a mile north of Medora.

 "Clay" is the broad term including dirt, sand, shale.  But "Shale" is the more specific 'clay only' term.

Bricks went to Purdue University, Ball St., Hanover College, Univ. Kentucky.  They went to Cincinnati and Chicago, Detroit, and other Midwestern cities to brick up portions of brick buildings.   The plant did also produce brick to custom order - bricks of unique sizes, shapes and finishes.

When the plant went bankrupt in 1924, Mr. Heller (John W. Heller, farmer, wife Margaret, and son James P.) and Mr. Robinson bought the plant for $30,000 at auction.   John W.'s son James P. Heller (1910-2000), of the Brownstown area would later take over as President of the Company through the plants closing in January of 1992. 

When the plant closed Jan. 31, 1992 there were about 22  stock holders ranging in age from 60-87 and who seemed to have no children interested in carrying on the plant.  Mr. Gray said perhaps the  plant should have never closed…there was just no interest in keeping it going among the aging stockholders.

Mr. Troy Darkis, of Vallonia, who himself worked at the plant as a young man under Bernard Gray, purased the brick plant site and much of the adjoining acreage.

The plant site is on about 9 acres.   Several years ago an individual  bought the pond area and built a nice large home on it clearing some timber to do so.  Another man bought a small section and placed a trailer or two there.

In December 2017 Troy Darkis transferred ownership of the brick plant property over to the non-profit Save the Medora Brick Plant organization.

3  from a phone conversation with Bernard A. Gray on Feb. 20, 2005 - Steve Graves


     Help get the story of the brick plant correct.

  • What do you know about the brick plant's history? 

  • And how do you know  it?

  • How are names or events mentioned here familiar to you?